The July 2009 Ürümqi riots were a series of violent riots over several days that broke out on 5 July 2009 in Ürümqi, the capital city of Uyghur.
In this riot, China deployed People's Armed Police to suppress Uyghur rioters,but two days later, hundreds of Han people clashed with both police and Uyghurs.
China officials said that a total of 197 people died, with 1,721 others injure and many vehicles and buildings destroyed.
On the other hand, Uyghur exile groups say the death toll is higher. Many men disappeared during wide-scale police sweeps in the days following the riots.
At the press conference in Tokyo Japan on July 29, 2009, Ms. Kadeen said that more than 10 thousand Uygurs disappeared after the riot.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) documented 43 cases and said figures for real disappearances were likely to be much higher.
Rioting began when the police confronted the march calling for a full investigation into the Shaoguan incident, a brawl in southern China several days earlier in which two Uyghurs had been killed. However, observers disagree on what caused the protests to become violent. The Chinese government alleges that the riots themselves were planned from abroad by the World Uyghur Congress (WUC) and its leader Rebiya Kadeer, while Kadeer denies fomenting the violence in her fight for Uyghur "self-determination."
Uyghur exile groups claim that the escalation was caused by the police's use of excessive force. Chinese media coverage of the Ürümqi riots was extensive, and was compared favourably to that of the unrest in Tibet in 2008. When the riots began, communications were immediately cut off. In the weeks that followed, official sources reported that over 1,000 Uyghurs were arrested and detained; mosques were temporarily closed.
By November 2009, over 400 individuals faced criminal charges for their actions during the riots. Nine were executed in November 2009, and by February 2010, at least 26 had received death sentences and there are disappered Uyghurs more than 10 thousand.