Coercion-The Early Years
Witness From Occupied Tibet "We have no rights, even over our bodies"
A report issued by the Tibetan Office of Information and International Relations (OIIR) in 1991 stated that "ACCORDING TO AVAILABLE SOURCES, THE PRACTICE OF FORCED ABORTION AND STERILISATION WAS REPORTED AS EARLY AS 1955. AT THAT TIME IT WAS CONFINED ONLY TO SOME PARTS OF AMDO (CHINGHAI) REGION OF TIBET .. "
Thus as far as can be ascertained, measures of population control were reportedly implemented at least in parts of Amdo, Eastern Tibet (renamed as Qinghai Province by communist China) by the Chinese authorities ONLY 5 YEARS AFTER THE INVASION OF TIBET. By 1960 Tibetan exiles who had escaped from occupied Tibet, following the crushing of the 10th March uprising in Lhasa, were able to sufficiently impress the International Commission of Jurists (lCJ) that there was widespread fear amongst the
Tibetan people, that these measures were aimed at the eventual destruction of the Tibetan race.
The 1960 report of the ICJ stated that "There is no doubt that the belief is widespread among the Tibetans that the Chinese deliberately sterilised large numbers of them in an attempt to prevent them from propagating their own race" and describes such activity as "specially defined as genocide by Article 2(d) of the Convention for the Prevention and punishment of Genocide".
The report also stated that "The facts which gave rise to this belief took place in Amdo region in 1955-56, and the Legal Inquiry Committee have no reason to doubt the bona fides of those who believe that they have been sterilised. It cannot however be accepted that the witnesses who claim to have been sterilised have in fact undergone this treatment", this being due to "Expert medical evidence on the details given is that the treatment described is not in accordance with any known method of sterilisation".
The Committee reported that it could find no proof of sterilisations having actually been done and did not consider that whatever had been done was in fact an "attempt to destroy the Tibetan race". It did however take the view that the "statements were honest". These initial reports of sterilisations in Amdo remain confused, but it is worth noting that accounts of Tibetans being used as 'Human Guinea Pigs' exist for the early and mid 1960's. An article in the TIBETAN REVIEW of July 1988 by a Tibetan nurse Gadrang Tenzin, describes how in 1964 a team of Chinese "doctors" toured Tibet. Tenzin states "Whether surgery was necessary or not and whether facilities existed or not, operations were performed. Many hundreds of healthy Tibetans died as a result or were killed.
When the bodies of those who died on the operating table were being dismembered to feed the birds, as per the Tibetan Buddhist Tradition, there were many cases of finding operating instruments and bandages sewn up inside them".
The incidents described to the ICJ as having occurred in Amdo in the mid 1950's could have been early examples of experimentation, perhaps even experimental sterilisation. Kunsang Paljor (Tibet-The Undying Flame 1977) describing "Chinese population Control Measures 1963-64" states that "From late 1963 the Chinese authorities formulated and implemented a plan of controlling the growth of the Tibetan population" and describes a media campaign that "discouraged" marriages for men under 30 years old and women under 25.
Tibetan cadres were told that "You are the leading elements of the masses.
YOU SHOULD BE THE FIRST TO BE STERILISED AND SHOW THE WAY FOR THE OTHERS. IF YOU REFUSE TO FOLLOW THIS POLICY, THERE WILL BE NO RATION INCREASES, AND NO EDUCATION FOR MORE THAN TWO CHILDREN. IT IS BEST THAT YOU THINK OVER THIS CAREFULLY. WE WILL BE OBSERVING YOU AND SHALL FIND OUT WHETHER YOU ARE LOYAL TO THE PARTY."
Paljor describes incidents known to him where Chinese methods of birth control resulted in illness, disability and death. He reports the case of a TIBET DAILY worker (Lhasawa Thondon) whose wife was sterilised in a Chinese hospital and afterwards developed a long term illness.
Another case (Jhampa Tendar) was also sterilised and "Thereafter
mysteriously crippled and confined to a wheel chair. His wife, Sonam Chonzom; emerged paralysed below the waist .. " after the operation.
Paljor states that "There have been instances when Tibetan youths have been sterilised under the pretence of being treated for some disease or other" he also reports that Tibetan women who married Chinese were praised as "good citizens" whereas "Tibetan marriages were frowned upon and whenever a pure Tibetan child was born they would say 'The crows in the sky are all black. There are no white ones' This meant that any Tibetan was a useless parasite".
Paljor was a worker on the TIBET DAILY in Lhasa and had opportunity to travel widely. However he apologises for "lack of details on Kham and Amdo; it is impossible to get reliable information from that part of Tibet since even Tibetan cadres are not allowed to cross into these provinces. Communication by letters arouses suspicion and in any case, they would all be censored." His information thus refers to the Tibetan region of U- Tsang, especially Lhasa and surrounding areas.
The testimonies of two Tibetan refugees published in 1976 by OIIR refer to issue of marriages. Pasang Tsewang (August 1971) states "Chinese men are encouraged to marry Tibetan girls. In Phari, the daughter of Ngodup Khangsar got married to Chu Trang-kun, a Chinese working in the telephone exchange. Many Tibetan girls were raped by Chinese soldiers and as a result there are many bastards as well. However, Tibetan men are not allowed to marry Chinese girls".
Kunga Thinley (January 1975) reporting on what he calls "a favourable turn" in conditions for Tibetans since 1971 says that "Tibetan girls have altogether stopped marrying Chinese men, however hard the pressures may be".
Taphe Adhi (Interview 20th July 1989) states that "In 1977, the Chinese authorities announced that Tibetans would be allowed to have only two children. In 1978, this was officially implemented. Two ladies were appointed to supervise it in our region. Instances were galore of Tibetans pleading with the Chinese officials by paying bribes so as to be able to bear their children.
Punishment for exceeding the official limit was cruel. Fields were confiscated, leaving the family to verge on starvation due to shortage of grains."
Taphe states that "One Tibetan woman, Asho Tranda; was the head at the Abortion/Sterilisation Office in Trabu Kuanggyaku (political Office) at Minyak Rangakha in Nyarong, Kham (Eastern Tibet region renamed and annexed into so-called Qinghai Province and others areas into Sichuan). She would visit all the towns, villages and nomadic areas to ensure that the abortion and sterilisation policy is efficiently implemented".
She names two hospitals where "the abortions and sterilisations were carried
out", one at Tranbu (Yiwun Shi) and another at Ching Qha Dha Du noting that
this last hospital was the biggest in the Minyak Rangakha area and that all the
doctors and nurses were Chinese. She further testifies that a woman named
Nyangjen Phupa Padri was "subjected to forced sterilisation in 1978".
Anyone wishing to discover more about China's coercive population program and its horrifying impact upon women in Tibet is advised to read the following
This is from Bod Rangzen @tibettruth https://www.facebook.com/tibettruth